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Medically reviewed by Drugs.com. Last updated on Jan 27, 2020.
Type 2 diabetes is a chronic disease. It is characterized by high levels of sugar in the blood. Type 2 diabetes is also called type 2 diabetes mellitus and adult-onset diabetes. That''s cells. To provide energy to the cells, glucose needs to leave the blood and get inside the cells.
Insulin traveling in the blood signals the cells to take up glucose. Insulin is a hormone produced by the pancreas. The pancreas is an organ in the abdomen. When levels of glucose in the blood rise (for example, after a meal), the pancreas produces more insulin.
Type 2 diabetes occurs when your body''s insulin resistance gets worse. In response the pancreas makes more and more insulin. Finally, the pancreas gets "". It cannot keep up with the demand for more and more insulin. It poops out. As a result, blood glucose levels start to rise.
Type 2 diabetes runs in families. Obesity greatly increases the risk of diabetes.
The symptoms of diabetes are related to high blood glucose levels. They include:
Excessive urination, thirst and hunger
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Extremely high blood sugar levels also can lead to a dangerous complication called hyperosmolar syndrome. This is a life-threatening form of dehydration. In some cases, hyperosmolar syndrome is the first sign that a person has type 2 diabetes. It causes confused thinking, weakness, nausea and even seizure and coma.
The the 1 last update 09 Aug 2020 treatment of type 2 diabetes also can produce symptoms. Too much glucose-lowering medicine, relative to dietary intake, can lead to the complication of low blood sugar (called hypoglycemia). Symptoms of hypoglycemia include:The treatment of type 2 diabetes also can produce symptoms. Too much glucose-lowering medicine, relative to dietary intake, can lead to the complication of low blood sugar (called hypoglycemia). Symptoms of hypoglycemia include:
Seizures and loss of consciousness (if hypoglycemia is not recognized and corrected)
You can correct hypoglycemia by eating or drinking something that has carbohydrates. This raises your blood sugar level.
Type 2 diabetes affects all parts of the body. It can cause serious, potentially life-threatening complications. These include:
Atherosclerosis — Atherosclerosis is fat buildup in the artery walls. This can impair blood flow to the all the organs. The heart, brain and legs are most often affected.
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Neuropathy — This is nerve damage. The most common type is peripheral neuropathy. The nerves to the legs are damaged first, causing pain and numbness in the feet. This can advance to cause symptoms in the legs and hands. Damage to the nerves that control digestion, sexual function and urination can also occur.
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Blood circulation can be poor, leading to slow healing. Left untreated, a simple sore can become infected and very large. If medical treatment cannot heal the sore, an amputation may be required.
Nephropathy — Damage to the kidneys. This is more likely if blood sugars remain elevated and high blood pressure is not treated aggressively.
Diabetes is diagnosed by testing the blood for sugar levels. Blood is tested in the morning after you have fasted overnight.
Typically, the body keeps blood sugar levels between 70 and 100 milligrams per deciliter (mg/dL), even after fasting. If a blood sugar level after fasting is greater than 125 mg/dL, diabetes is diagnosed.
Your doctor will examine you to look for:
Obesity, especially abdominal obesity—a condition that greatly raises a person''s insulin resistance to increase. As a result, additional treatment typically is required over time.
If a close relative—particularly, a parent or sibling—has type 2 diabetes, or if your blood glucose test shows ""—defined as blood glucose levels between 100 and 125 mg/dL—you are at increased risk for developing type 2 diabetes. You can help to prevent type 2 diabetes by:
Maintaining your ideal body weight.
Exercising regularly—like a brisk walk of 1-2 miles in 30 minutes—at least five times a week, even if that does not result in you achieving an ideal weight. That''t lose weight.
Eating a healthy diet.
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If you already have type 2 diabetes, you can still delay or prevent complications:
Keep tight control of your blood sugar. This reduces the risk of most complications.
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Taking a daily aspirin—particularly if you already have some signs of heart disease.
Aggressively managing other risk factors for atherosclerosis, such as:
High blood pressure
High cholesterol and triglycerides
Visit an eye doctor and a foot specialist every year to reduce eye and foot complications.
Diet and Exercise
In most cases, type 2 diabetes treatment begins with weight reduction through diet and exercise. A healthy diet for a person with diabetes is:
Low in saturated for 1 last update 09 Aug 2020 fats and cholesterolLow in saturated fats and cholesterol
Without any trans for 1 last update 09 Aug 2020 fatsWithout any trans fats
Low in total calories
Nutritionally balanced with abundant amounts of:
Monounsaturated the 1 last update 09 Aug 2020 oilsMonounsaturated oils
Fruits and vegetables
A daily multivitamin is recommended for most people with diabetes.
For some people, type 2 diabetes can the 1 last update 09 Aug 2020 be controlled just with diet and exercise. Even if medications are required, diet and exercise remain important for controlling diabetes.For some people, type 2 diabetes can be controlled just with diet and exercise. Even if medications are required, diet and exercise remain important for controlling diabetes.
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The medications used for type 2 diabetes include pills and injections. The pills work in many different ways. They include medications that:
Reduce insulin resistance in the muscles and liver.
Increase the amount of insulin made and released by the pancreas.
Cause a burst of insulin release with each meal.
Delay the absorption of sugars from the intestine.
Slow your digestion.
Reduce your appetite for large meals.
Decrease the conversion of fat to the 1 last update 09 Aug 2020 glucose. These medications are called thiazolidinediones. One medication in this group has recently been linked to heart disease. As a result, drugs from this group are not recommended as a first choice in treatment. Decrease the conversion of fat to glucose. These medications are called thiazolidinediones. One medication in this group has recently been linked to heart disease. As a result, drugs from this group are not recommended as a first choice in treatment.
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Because type 2 diabetes develops when the pancreas cannot make enough insulin to overcome insulin resistance, about one of three people with this disease take some form of insulin injection.
In advanced type 2 diabetes, or for people who want to tightly control glucose levels, insulin may be needed more than once per day and in higher doses.
Treatment plans that include both very long-acting insulin and very short-acting insulin are frequently the most successful for controlling blood sugar. Very short-acting insulin is used with meals, to help control the spike in blood sugar levels that occur with a meal. If a person does not eat on a regular schedule, very short-acting insulin can be particularly helpful.
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Medications used to treat type 2 diabetes can have side effects. These vary by medication. Side effects may include:
Low blood sugar levels (hypoglycemia)
Worsening of the 1 last update 09 Aug 2020 heart failureWorsening of heart failure
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Increased risk of heart attack (with one of the thiazolidinediones medicines)
Excessive the 1 last update 09 Aug 2020 gas and bloatingExcessive gas and bloating
Fortunately, these side effects are uncommon, so the benefits of treatment far outweigh the risks. People with type 2 diabetes who have kidney failure should generally avoid an otherwise very effective diabetes medicine, metformin, because in such patients it can rarely cause a life-threatening buildup of lactic acid in the blood.
In addition to medicines that help control the level of blood sugar, people with type 2 diabetes often take other medicines that reduce the risk or to slow the onset of the complications of diabetes. These include medications that:
Slow the worsening of kidney disease—particularly drugs called angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors, and angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs).
Lower cholesterol. All diabetics should consider taking medication to lower their cholesterol, usually one of the statin medications.
Lower blood pressure. Diabetics should use medication to control high blood pressure if it can''s extra insulin needs.
After the first few years, the majority of people with type 2 diabetes require more than one medicine to keep their blood sugar controlled.
The prognosis in people with type 2 diabetes varies. It depends on how well an individual modifies his or her risk of complications. Heart attack, stroke and kidney disease can result in premature death. Disability due to blindness, amputation, heart disease, stroke and nerve damage may occur. Some people with type 2 diabetes become dependent on dialysis treatments because of kidney failure.gastritis type 2 diabetes genetic (👍 can drink alcohol) | gastritis type 2 diabetes mellitus icd 10how to gastritis type 2 diabetes for
American Diabetes Association
ATTN: National Call Center
1701 N. Beauregard St.
Alexandria, VA 22311
American Dietetic Association
120 South Riverside Plaza
Suite the 1 last update 09 Aug 2020 2000
Chicago, IL 60606-6995
http://www.eatright.org/ American Dietetic Association
120 South Riverside Plaza
Chicago, IL 60606-6995
National Diabetes Information Clearinghouse
1 Information Way
Bethesda, MD 20892-3560
National Institute of Diabetes & Digestive & Kidney Disorders
Office of Communications and Public Liaison
Building 31, Room 9A04
31 Center Drive, MSC 2560
Bethesda, MD 20892-2560
Weight-Control Information Network
1 Win for 1 last update 09 Aug 2020 Way
Bethesda, MD 20892-3665
http://www.niddk.nih.gov/health/nutrit/win.htm Weight-Control Information Network
1 Win Way
Bethesda, MD 20892-3665
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